KAATSU/Occlusion training

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KAATSU/Occlusion training

Postby Dtlv74 on Thu May 28, 2009 4:51 pm

Some studies for GymBunny;

Muscle size and strength are increased following walk training with restricted venous blood flow from the leg muscle, KAATSU-walk training
Takashi Abe1*, Charles F. Kearns1, and Yoshiaki Sato2

1 Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan
2 Department of Ischenic Circulatory Physiology, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

* To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: abe-takashi@c.metro-u.ac.jp.

Previous studies have shown that low-intensity resistance training with restricted muscular venous blood flow (KAATSU) causes muscle hypertrophy and strength gain. To investigate the effects of daily physical activity combined with KAATSU, we examined the acute and chronic effects of walk training with and without KAATSU on MRI-measured muscle size and maximum dynamic (1-RM) and isometric strength, along with blood hormonal parameters. Nine men performed KAATSU-walk training and 9 men performed walk training alone (Control-walk). Training was conducted 2 times/day, 6 days/week for 3 weeks using 5 sets of 2-min bout (treadmill speed at 50 m/min), with a 1-min rest between bouts. Mean oxygen uptake (VO2) during KAATSU-walk and Control-walk exercise were 19.5 ± 3.6% and 17.2 ± 3.1% of treadmill-determined VO2 max, respectively. Serum growth hormone was elevated (P<0.01) after acute KAATSU-walk exercise, but not in Control-walk exercise. MRI-measured thigh muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume increased 4~7%, and 1-RM and maximum isometric strength increased 8~10% in the KAATSU-walk group. There was no change in muscle size and dynamic and isometric strength in the Control-walk group. Indicators of muscle damage (creatine kinase and myoglobin) and resting anabolic hormones did not change in both groups. The results suggest that the combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction with slow-walk training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain despite the minimal level of exercise intensity. KAATSU-walk training may be a potentially useful method for promoting muscle hypertrophy covering in a wide range of the population, including the frail and elderly.

abstract


Effects of Exercise Load and Blood-Flow Restriction on Skeletal Muscle Function.

BASIC SCIENCES
Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 39(10):1708-1713, October 2007.
COOK, SUMMER B.; CLARK, BRIAN C.; PLOUTZ-SNYDER, LORI L.

Abstract:
Resistance training at low loads with blood flow restriction (BFR) (also known as Kaatsu) has been shown to stimulate increases in muscle size and strength. It is unclear how occlusion pressure, exercise intensity, and occlusion duration interact, or which combination of these factors results in the most potent muscle stimulus.

Purpose: To determine the effect of eight BFR protocols on muscle fatigue (decrement in maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) after the performance of exercise), and to compare the decrement in MVC with the currently recommended resistance exercise intensity (~80% MVC).

Methods: During five test sessions, 21 subjects (14 males and 7 females, 27.7 +/- 4.9 yr) completed nine protocols, each consisting of three sets of knee extensions (KE) to failure. One protocol was high-load (HL) exercise (80% MVC) with no BFR, and the other eight were BFR at varying levels of contraction intensity (20 or 40% MVC), occlusion pressure (partial (~160 mm Hg) or complete (~300 mm Hg)), and occlusion duration (off during the rest between sets or continuously applied). To evaluate each protocol, MVC were performed before and after exercise, and the decrement in force was calculated.

Results: Three sets of KE at 20% MVC with continuous partial occlusion (20%ConPar) resulted in a greater decrement in MVC compared with HL (31 vs 19%, P = 0.001). None of the other BFR protocols were different from the HL protocol, nor were they different from 20%ConPar (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: All BFR protocols elicited at least as much fatigue as HL, even though lower loads were used. The 20%ConPar protocol was the only one that elicited significantly more fatigue than HL. Future research should evaluate protocol training effectiveness and overall safety of BFR exercise.

(C)2007The American College of Sports Medicine

Edit: link added; abstract


Intramuscular metabolism during low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction
Tadashi Suga,1 Koichi Okita,1 Noriteru Morita,2 Takashi Yokota,4 Kagami Hirabayashi,4 Masahiro Horiuchi,3 Shingo Takada,2 Tomohiro Takahashi,2 Masashi Omokawa,2 Shintaro Kinugawa,4 and Hiroyuki Tsutsui4

1Graduate School of Program in Lifelong Learning Studies, 2Department of Wellness Planning, 3Department of Human Care Studies, Hokusho University, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, Japan; and 4Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan

Submitted 5 March 2008 ; accepted in final form 10 February 2009

Although recent studies have reported that low-intensity resistance training with blood flow restriction could stress the muscle effectively and provide rapid muscle hypertrophy and strength gain equivalent to those of high-intensity resistance training, the exact mechanism and its generality have not yet been clarified. We investigated the intramuscular metabolism during low-intensity resistance exercise with blood flow restriction and compared it with that of high-intensity and low-intensity resistance exercises without blood flow restriction using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Twenty-six healthy subjects (22 ± 4 yr) participated and performed unilateral plantar flexion (30 repetitions/min) for 2 min. Protocols were as follows: low-intensity exercise (L) using a load of 20% of one-repetition maximum (1 RM), L with blood flow restriction (LR), and high-intensity exercise using 65% 1 RM (H). Intramuscular phosphocreatine (PCr) and diprotonated phosphate (H2PO4–) levels and intramuscular pH at rest and during exercise were obtained. We found that the PCr depletion, the H2PO4– increase, and the intramuscular pH decrease during LR were significantly greater than those in L (P < 0.001); however, those in LR were significantly lower than those in H (P < 0.001). The recruitment of fast-twitch fiber evaluated by inorganic phosphate splitting occurred in only 31% of the subjects in LR, compared with 70% in H. In conclusion, the metabolic stress in skeletal muscle during low-intensity resistance exercise was significantly increased by applying blood flow restriction, but did not generally reach that during high-intensity resistance exercise. This new method of resistance training needs to be examined for optimization of the protocol to reach equivalence with high-intensity resistance training.

abstract
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Re: KAATSU/Occlusion training

Postby Dtlv74 on Thu May 28, 2009 4:58 pm

Crazy Japanese idea all this. :?

I don't know a lot about it at all but from what i've read on it, the occulsion creates local hypoxia (oxygen restriction) in the muscle and this leads to a super huge localised hGH spike and raises AMPK... AMPK is an interesting protein which functions to improve fat burning, glucose tolerance and insulin dynamics whilst also reducing fat storage and regulating fat burning.

Seems a pretty extreme way to ramp up HGH & AMPK though!
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Re: KAATSU/Occlusion training

Postby Dtlv74 on Thu May 28, 2009 5:01 pm

The history and future of KAATSU Training
Y. Sato1)
1) Department of Ischemic Circulatory Physiology, The University of Tokyo
Abstract
KAATSU training involves the restriction of blood flow to exercising muscle and is the culmination of nearly 40 years of experimentation with the singular purpose of increasing muscle mass. KAATSU Training consists of performing low-intensity resistance training while a relatively light and flexible cuff is placed on the proximal part of one's lower or upper limbs, which provides appropriate superficial pressure. KAATSU Training should not be confused with training under ischemic conditions which has previously been reported (Sundberg, 1994). KAATSU Training does not induce ischemia within skeletal muscle, but rather promotes a state of blood pooling in the capillaries within the limb musculature. Applied basic and clinical research conducted over the past 10 years has demonstrated that KAATSU Training not only improves muscle mass and strength in healthy volunteers, but also benefits patients with cardiovascular and orthopedic conditions.


Skeletal muscle size and circulating IGF-1 are increased after two weeks of twice daily “KAATSU” resistance training

T. Abe1), T. Yasuda1), T. Midorikawa1), Y. Sato2), C. F. Kearns3), K. Inoue4), K. Koizumi5) and N. Ishii6)
1) Department of Exercise and Sport Science, Tokyo Metropolitan University
2) Department of Ischemic Circulatory Physiology, The University of Tokyo
3) Cardiovascular/Endocrine Biology, Schering-Plough Research Institute
4) Orthopedic Medical Clinic
5) Department of Radiology, Tokyo Medical Uiversity Hachioji Medical Center
6) Department of Life Science, University of Tokyo

Abstract
This study investigated the effects of twice daily sessions of low-intensity resistance training (LIT, 20% of 1-RM) with restriction of muscular venous blood flow (namely “LIT-Kaatsu” training) for two weeks on skeletal muscle size and circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Nine young men performed LIT-Kaatsu and seven men performed LIT alone. Training was conducted two times / day, six days / week for 2 weeks using 3 sets of two dynamic exercises (squat and leg curl). Muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and volume were measured by magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 3 days after the last training session (post-testing). Mid-thigh muscle-bone CSA was calculated from thigh girth and adipose tissue thickness, which were measured every morning prior to the training session. Serum IGF-1 concentration was measured at baseline, mid-point of the training and post-testing. Increases in squat (17%) and leg curl (23%) one-RM strength in the LIT-Kaatsu were higher (p<0.05) than those of the LIT (9% and 2%). There was a gradual increase in circulating IGF-1 and muscle-bone CSA (both p<0.01) in the LIT-Kaatsu, but not in the LIT. Increases in quadriceps, biceps femoris and gluteus maximus muscle volume were, respectively, 7.7%, 10.1% and 9.1% for LIT-Kaatsu (p<0.01) and 1.4%, 1.9% and -0.6% for LIT (p>0.05). There was no difference (p>0.05) in relative strength (1-RM / muscle CSA) between baseline and post-testing in both groups. We concluded that skeletal muscle hypertrophy and strength gain occurred after two weeks of twice daily LIT-Kaatsu training.


Effects of low-intensity “KAATSU” resistance exercise on hemodynamic and growth hormone responses
H. Takano1), T. Morita1), H. Iida1), M. Kato1), K. Uno1), K. Hirose2)4), A. Matsumoto1), K. Takenaka1), Y. Hirata1), T. Furuichi4), F. Eto2), R. Nagai1), Y. Sato3) and T. Nakajima1)3)
1) Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Tokyo
2) Department of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo
3) Department of Ischemic Circulatory Physiology, Kaatsu Training, University of Tokyo
4) Department of Rehabilitation, Dokkyo University School of Medicine
Abstract
Growth hormone (GH) is secreted in a pulsatile fashion during exercise, which promotes skeletal muscle growth and muscle strength. We compared the effects of different types of short-term low-intensity resistance exercise (STLIRE) on the hemodynamic and GH responses of men aged 20 to 45 years. Eleven untrained men performed 30 repetitions for 2 to 4 sets (mean 61 ± 7 repetitions) until fatigue for bilateral leg extension-flexion exercise (20% of 1 RM -Proteus Multi Exercise Machine) under the conditions of reduced muscle blood flow by applied pressure at the proximal ends of both legs by a specially-designed belt (Kaatsu Training). In the controlled exercise condition, without Kaatsu (n=9), subjects again performed the same exercise protocol as described above. Finally, a group of 5 men performed 3 sets of 10 repetitions using the Power Rehabilitation machine. Hemodynamic parameters were measured by using the impedance cardiography. Serum concentrations of GH, noradrenaline (NOR), and lactate were also measured. STLIRE with Kaatsu significantly increased GH, compared to STLIRE without Kaatsu. Maximal heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) in STLIRE with Kaatsu were higher when compared to the control condition, however, stroke volume (SV) was lower compared to the controlled condition due to a decreased venous return induced by Kaatsu training. Total peripheral resistance (TPR) did not change significantly. The increase in NOR and lactate in STLIRE with Kaatsu was also significantly higher than without Kaatsu. These results suggest that “Kaatsu” leg resistance exercise caused a significant exercise-induced GH response even in STLIRE, with a reduction of cardiac preload during exercise. The results of the study indicate that Kaatsu training may become a unique method for rehabilitation in patients with cardiac diseases or low physical fitness.
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Re: KAATSU/Occlusion training

Postby Dtlv74 on Thu May 28, 2009 5:17 pm

I can't find the AMPK link to KAATSU again but it's about somewhere. The link between the two is that studies have shown AMPK levels increase in trained individuals, but also reduce in activity... but clamping apparently upregulates the activity again.

Will try to find the article...
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Re: KAATSU/Occlusion training

Postby julesm on Fri May 29, 2009 7:13 pm

det find clive james whilst you are at it
we can have an esnpro type of endurance tv show

nah will leave this type of training to our japanese friends- would like to see long term epidemiological data regarding safety of such methods

hell yeah, if i did a study saying beating yourself with a cactus equals growth through mtor signalling would you be game :D
interesting, but rather extreme, even if it is for the cause
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Re: KAATSU/Occlusion training

Postby Dtlv74 on Fri May 29, 2009 9:55 pm

julesm wrote:det find clive james whilst you are at it
we can have an esnpro type of endurance tv show

nah will leave this type of training to our japanese friends- would like to see long term epidemiological data regarding safety of such methods

hell yeah, if i did a study saying beating yourself with a cactus equals growth through mtor signalling would you be game :D
interesting, but rather extreme, even if it is for the cause


I think it's interesting but not something i'd ever do... neither will you catch me doing 3x10 whips with a weighted cactus!
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